3. Gëzim Visoka and Grace Bolton (2011), ‘The Complex Nature and Implications of International Engagement after Kosovo’s Independence’, Civil Wars, 13(2): 189-214.
This article examines the implications of two distinct phases of international engagement in Kosovo. We argue that a number of flaws developed during UNMIK’s administration (1999–2008), which continue to undermine Kosovo’s stability. We then disentangle the complex inter-institutional relations between ICO, EULEX, UNMIK and the OSCE. Indeed, their incompatible positions towards Kosovo’s status results in a lack of clarity, coordination and coherence that weaken Kosovo within four policy areas: Kosovo’s international recognition and participation, the rule of law, interethnic relations and the fate of North Kosovo. While these shortcomings could be viewed as ‘unintended consequences’, we argue more broadly that the Kosovo case illustrates the limits of liberal peacebuilding and the tensions and implications of strategic peacebuilding.